Esteriótipos de gênero na formação infantil


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Explica muita coisa, é relevante para a criação de jogos, didáticas infantis e relação de docentes com a comunidade escolar.

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Gender Stereotypes About Intellectual Ability
Emerge Early and Influence Children’s Interests
BY JESS HENNESSEY
research summary
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MARCH 2017
Previous research has demonstrated that cultural stereotypes can affect individuals’ career aspirations and
goals, as well as their levels of achievement. The stereotype that men are better than women in science,
technology, engineering, and math (STEM) can impair women’s performance 1,2 and cause them to disen-
gage from these fields of study. 3,4 But when and how do these stereotypes come to affect behavior?
To explore these questions, Mindset Scholar Andrei
Cimpian and his colleagues Lin Bian and Sarah-Jane
Leslie conducted multiple studies to assess the devel-
opmental trajectory of the endorsement of gender ste-
reotypes among young children between the ages of 5
and 7. In particular, they focused on gender stereotypes
about raw intellectual talent (or “brilliance”), since this
trait is commonly seen as important for success in many
prestigious careers. 5
A t
KEY FINDINGS:
• By the age of 6, girls were less likely than boys to
believe that members of their gender are “really,
really smart”
• 6- and 7-year-old girls avoided participating in
activities that were labeled for children who are
“really, really smart”
what age do children begin endorsing
gender stereotypes about brilliance ?
In their first study, the research team developed a task
where children were told a brief story about a person
who is “really, really smart.” These children, ages 5, 6,
and 7 (N=96), were then shown images of four adults -
two men and two women - and were asked who they
believed the story was about.
Male and female 5-year-olds were more likely to identify individ-
uals of their own gender as “really, really smart.” However, 6- and
7-year-old girls were much less likely than 6- and 7-year-old
boys to associate brilliance with their own gender. This suggests
that changes about children’s ideas of intelligence occur rapidly,
and that gender disparities in beliefs about intelligence are
evident by age 6. The results were replicated in a follow-up study
(N=144) using images of both children and adults.
This research summary highlights findings from the following article: Bian, L., Leslie, S.J., Cimpian, A. (2017). Gender stereotypes about intellec-
tual ability emerge early and influence children’s interests. Science, 355, 389-391.
Hosted at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University, the Mindset Scholars
Network is a group of leading social scientists dedicated to improving student outcomes and expanding educational
opportunity by advancing our scientific understanding of students’ mindsets about learning and school.
MindsetScholarsNetwork.org
G E N D E R S T E R E OT Y P E S A B O U T I N T E L L E C T UA L A B I L I T Y E M E R G E E A R LY A N D I N F LU E N C E C H I L D R E N ’ S I N T E R E S T S
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these stereotypical beliefs apply to per -
ceptions of school achievement ?
In their second study, the researchers tested whether young
girls held gendered beliefs about school performance in ad-
dition to intelligence. The participants were shown images of
four children (two boys, two girls) and were asked to identify
who received the best grades in school.
Unlike with perceptions of brilliance, there was no significant
difference between younger and older girls in their propen-
sity to identify girls as top grade earners. Older girls were
actually more likely to select girls as earning top grades than
their male peers were to select boys.
This suggests that young girls’ stereotypical beliefs about
brilliance may not be rooted in whom they perceive to be
successful in a school setting. There was also no significant
correlation between girls’ perception of school achievement
and their perception of brilliance.
D o
and the design of learning spaces that promote inclusion and
counter stereotypes.
In future research it will be important to study whether these
findings replicate in different cultural contexts and how envi-
ronments may influence children’s perspectives on brilliance.
This brief was edited by Lisa Quay, Executive Director of the Mindset Scholars Network,
and David Bowermaster, Principal, Fireside Strategy.

  1. Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype threat and women’s math
    performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 4-28.
  2. Galdi, S., Cadinu, M., & Tomasetto, C. (2014). The roots of stereotype threat: When auto-
    matic associations disrupt girls’ math performance. Child Development, 85, 250-263.
  3. Davies, P. G., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D. M., & Gerhardstein, R. (2002). Consuming images:
    How television commercials that elicit stereotype threat can restrain women academically
    and professionally. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1615-1628.
  4. Murphy, M. C., Steele, C. M., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Signaling threat: How situational cues
    affect women in math, science, and engineering settings. Psychological Science, 18,
    879-885.
  5. Leslie, S. J., Cimpian, A., Meyer, M., & Freeland, E. (2015). Expectations of brilliance under-
    lie gender distributions across academic disciplines. Science, 347, 262-265.
    perceptions about brilliance relate to
    young children ’ s behavior ?
    In the third study, the researchers introduced a novel game
    to 6- and 7-year-old participants (N=64). One game was
    described as designed for “children who are really, really
    smart” and the other for “children who try really, really hard.”
    The participants were asked four questions to measure their
    interest in the game.
    Girls were less likely than boys to express interest in the
    game said to be for “really, really smart” children, but not for
    the game said to be for hard-working children. Participants’
    gendered beliefs about brilliance were also measured. The
    research team found that female participants who displayed
    gendered beliefs about intelligence - in other words, girls
    who were more likely to attribute brilliance to males - were
    less likely to report interest in the game labeled for brilliant
    children. This suggests that stereotypical beliefs about bril-
    liance predict, and may influence, real behavioral decisions
    made by young children.
    I mplications
    of this research
    These studies provide preliminary evidence about the
    way that gendered beliefs about intelligence develop and
    relate to young children’s decision-making. Understanding
    more about the sources of these stereotypical beliefs about
    brilliance can help inform the implementation of practices
    G E N D E R S T E R E OT Y P E S A B O U T I N T E L L E C T UA L A B I L I T Y E M E R G E E A R LY A N D I N F LU E N C E C H I L D R E N ’ S I N T E R E S T S
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